Tamil Nadu has gone many steps ahead and for this major credit goes to its strong infrastructure. Its industrial, social as well as physical infrastructure is all fantastic and well developed. In terms of education and health care area, the state pays lot of attention. The government of Tamil Nadu has been making systematic efforts to encourage private sector participation in the infrastructural development. In a short span of time, there has been a rapid expansion of the physical infrastructure and the state has a wide network of roadways and railways and also there has been a tremendous rise in the passenger carrying capacity of the ports.
Educational InfrastructureThe state boasts of a good educational infrastructure. In the year 2005-06, almost 3.72 million students
were enrolled at the primary school level. There is a vast network of institutions for imparting higher education, especially technical education. The state has a developed infrastructure for higher education and that is its plus point. The state has around 252 engineering colleges, 236 polytechnic, 661 industrial training institutes and 1150 arts colleges. As of now, there are near about 1,506 schools that impart vocational education. Participation by the private firms in technical & vocational education is encouraged by the state.
Vocational education was introduced in higher secondary schools during the 10th Five Year Plan period. The state government has set itself the objective of raising the gross enrollment ratio in higher education to 25 per cent by 2020 from the present level of 11.73 per cent. The state has successfully straddled investment in primary and higher education. Its focus on primary education has ensured that as high as 99 per cent of the state population has access to primary education.
Health Care InfrastructureThe state is well equipped with all the health care facilities. It has 315 hospitals, 8683 health sub centres, 1417 primary health centres and 213 dispensaries. Chennai is popularly known as health care capital of India. Life expectancy at birth for male is 67 years and that for females is 69.8 years for the period between 2000-06 which is higher than the national average for men and women is 64.1 years and 65.4 years respectively. Tamil Nadu is increasingly been recognised as the medical hub in South Asia. Some of the well known hospitals in Tamil Nadu are Apollo Hospitals, Vijaya Hospitals, the Sankara Nethralaya Eye Hospital, the Christian Medical College Hospital at Vellore and the affiliated hospitals of Ramchandra Medical College. The state government is concentrating on bringing about improvements in the general health, access to health care services and effective control and prevention of communicable diseases.
|Other Medical Institutions
|Primary Health Centres
|Health Sub Centres
|Dispensaries & Mobile Medical Units
|Wings attached to Medical College Hospitals, District
Head Quarters Hospitals, Taluk & Non Taluk Hospitals
|Wings attached to Primary Health Centres
Source: State government website
|Dispensaries & Mobile Medical Units
Wings attached to Medical College Hospitals, District
|Head Quarters Hospitals, Taluk and Non-Taluk Hospitals
Physical Infrastructure: Railways, Roadways, Airways and Waterways
RoadsTamil Nadu has a vast network of roads linking it to all the major urban centres, agricultural markets and rural habitations. The state is also a terminus for the Golden Quadrilateral project that is scheduled to be completed in 2008. It has a total road length of 167,000 km, of which 60,628 km are maintained by the State Highways Department. Its transport department regulates the functioning of seven state Transport Undertakings which manage public transport. Its average density of road is 1.59 km per sq km which is higher the all India average of 0.68 km per sq km. For upgrading its road infrastructure, the state government has taken the initiative to implement the World Bank funded project which would cost around $500 million.
Civil AviationThe airport at Chennai caters to the international tourists and is the third largest airport with a separate terminal to meet the domestic needs. Besides this, there is an international airport at Tiruchirappalli, and domestic airports at Coimbatore, Tuticorin and Madurai. Seven international airlines operate 28 exclusive cargo flights per week and for the clearance of customs, EDI facility is provided.
RailwaysChennai has an established Suburban Railway network and presently the state is in the process of developing a metro. Tamil Nadu has 4,180 km of rail network with a density of 32.2 km per 1,000 sq km. Its major rail junctions are at Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai and Tiruchirappalli.
PortsThe state has several ports out of which 3 are major and are located at Chennai, Tuticorin and Ennore. The ports have all the container handling facilities and are directly linked with East Asia and Europe. Besides this, there are 14 minor ports which are managed by the Tamil Nadu Maritime Board. There has been a rise of almost 13 percent in the volume of cargo for the year ending 2005-06 over its previous year. It is believed that the Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project will convert the Tuticorin port into a transhipment hub like the ones in Singapore and Colombo. Cuddalore, Colachel, Karaikal, Pamban and Valinokkan are currently capable of handling over 73 million metric tonnes of cargo annually which accounts for almost 24 percent of total cargo handled by the country.
The state is endowed with a large water storage capacity and efficient canal system. A desalination plant to be set up in Chennai is expected to augment existing availability. Water harvesting facilities are being developed in and around Chennai to check leakage of fresh water to the sea and replenish the existing groundwater levels.
Power InfrastructureTamil Nadu has an installed generation capacity of 13,276 MW which is the second largest in the whole of India. The breakup of the total installation capacity of the state is as follows:
- 4 thermal stations generating 2970 MW
- 4 gas turbine stations generating 424 MW
- 19 MW from wind mills
- 37 hydro stations generating 2184 MW
- 1154 MW from private sector projects
- 2859 MW as Tamil Nadu’s share from Central Generating Stations
- 335 MW as external assistance
- 175 MW from captive power plants
- 3535 MW of generating capacity from privately owned wind farms
- 376.6 MW of installed capacity of co-generation in sugar mills
- 78.35 MW of biomass power project
- 0.165 MW of solar power
The state produces electricity in bulk so much so that it is left with power to sell to the neighbouring states like Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. From Jan 2006 to Jan 2007, its capacity to generate power has increased by the percentage of 19.94 per cent. The Union Budget has allocated a sum of US$ 62 million for setting up four more nuclear reactors in the state with an aggregate capacity of 4,000 MW.
The total generating capacity of Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB) as on February 28, 2007 was 10,098 MW. This comprises 5,565 MW of TNEB’s own generating stations, 1,154 MW of private sector power plants, 2,841 MW from central sector generating stations, external assistance of 360 MW and others (including captive power plants) of 178 MW.
Telecommunications InfrastructureTamil Nadu has a well developed telecommunications infrastructure for offering the facilities of video conferencing and data transfer in high volumes. The state has made a remarkable progress in this segment. Having a tele density of eight, the state is performing quite well on this front and is in fact above the national average of 5.1. It has a 100 per cent digital technology based exchange network. As far as rural connectivity is concerned, Tamil Nadu has come a long way ahead and has 86 percent rural connectivity covering major part of villages. According to estimates by Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, the number of wireless connections in Tamil Nadu was 22.4 million and the number of wireline subscribers was 2.38 million as of September 2008.
Seven service providers in the state make phones available on demand. Chennai has the largest bandwidth of 13,520 Gbps. VSNL has laid another submarine cable linking Chennai with Singapore with a bandwidth of 5.12 Gbps. Six agencies have already been permitted on a non-exclusive basis to create high bandwidth optic fibre cable networks that will cover all the districts. The state houses 12,196 post offices, out of which 8,692 post offices offer postal services and 3,504 provide telegraph services in addition to the postal services.
Other important features of Tamil Nadu’s telecommunication technology:
- Bharti is the Single Tel Submarine cable link between Chennai-Singapore with bandwidth of 8.4 terabits per second
- A second submarine cable with 5.12 terabits per second has been commissioned by VSNL
- Internet Leased Line with port speeds from 64K to 155 Mbps (STM-1)
- TV uplinking & Videoconferencing systems
- Managed Data Network Service Frame Relay technology to meet mission critical applications with disaster recovery solution
- Long Distance Leased Line (NLD LL) offering point-to-point service with dedicated bandwidth
- Internet Protocol - Virtual Private Network Service (IPVPN)
- Value-added services are being provided to meet needs of software / BPO companies
Information Technology InfrastructureAs far as the IT infrastructure is concerned, it has over 1400 companies employing more than 145,000 professionals. Next to Bangalore, Chennai ranks second in terms of the software exports in India. It is one of the initial states in India to come up with their IT policy. It is one of the first states to formulate a comprehensive policy for laying high bandwidth optic fibre cables throughout the state. Software companies (including services and training) in Tamil Nadu are assured of uninterrupted power supply, and exempted from Pollution Control regulations, Factories Act and certain provisions of the Tamil Nadu Shops & Establishment Act.. Government of Tamil Nadu promoted Information Technology Park – the TIDEL Park to boost the development of the Information Technology Corridor of Chennai.
Companies such as HCL, Wipro, TCS, Infosys, Convergys, Ford Information Technology, Xansa, iSoft
have their offices in Chennai. Infosys Technologies has set up India’s largest software development centre to house 25,000 professionals at an estimated investment of $270 million in Chennai.
Financial infrastructureChennai is the financial capital of south India. The financial services sector offers tremendous opportunities. All national and international banks have offices in the state and are geared up to boost industrial investment. Tamil Nadu is in the top quartile in the country in terms of bank credit flow.
Industrial infrastructureThe government of Tamil Nadu established the Madras Special Economic Zone (MEPZ) way back in the year 1984 to promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). It is one of the seven EPZs set up by the Government of India. It is one among the Multi-product zones housing 101 functional units. Ennore SEZ Co. Ltd (ESCO) has been formed to implement a SEZ Project near Ennore About 2500 acres have been earmarked at US$ 90 million. A SEZ has also been set up in the Krishnagiri District which has achieved “in-principle” approval from Government of India for establishing a multi product Special Economic Zone in an area of about 1055 Hectares in the Hosur and Denkanikotta taluks of Krishnagiri District. As per the estimations, this project will cost around US$ 110 million.
The government of Tamil Nadu has set up two apparel parks one at Tiruppur and other at Irungattukottai near Chennai. It is estimated to cost somewhere around US$ 133 million out of which the government of India has agreed to provide assistance of US$ 6.5 million. The construction work of the Park at Tiruppur is complete and also it has commenced its operations.
The Government has also decided to set up Hi-Tech Weaving Parks namely:
- Cauvery Hi-Tech Weaving Park
- Kumarapalayam, Vaigai Hi-Tech Weaving Park
- Andipatti and Palladam Hi-Tech Weaving Park, Palladam.